Rod Githens, Ph.D.

Six Ways to Be Ready for a Campus Shutdown

Originally published on Medium on March 2, 2020

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Sometimes higher education truly has its collective head in the sand. Institutions have left themselves vulnerable to collapse during a long-term campus closure, despite increased risk from extreme weather events and other unexpected catastrophes. I talked with representatives from across the county to understand their preparedness for an extended campus closure. Their responses illuminate the need for creative, innovative approaches to campus and workplace policies.

Japan’s nationwide shutdown of its schools due to Coronavirus (COVID-19) got me thinking about what would happen if universities in the U.S. closed their doors for a month. Even if it doesn’t happen with this pandemic, some natural disaster or other unexpected events will certainly cause campus closures across the country this year. The higher education workplace is generally unprepared to support employees in continuing operations to serve students during campus closures.

Where I live in Northern California, most institutions closed for up to two weeks in November 2018 due to heavy smoke from devasting fires. Others have experienced closures due to rolling electric blackouts to prevent fires. Many institutions shut down altogether, and most cease operations and pay “nonessential” employees for the days off. For large institutions that close their campuses and pay employees for days off rather than creating an opportunity for them to work from home, the cost gets into millions of dollars in lost wages. Frankly, this situation is irresponsible in an era of escalating tuition. Institutions in other regions of the country have repeated this pattern during floods, snowstorms, and other closure events.

With the scare over Coronavirus, I was curious if institutions have become more prepared to continue essential functions remotely in the case of an extended campus closure. In the last few days, I polled colleagues at multiple colleges and universities across the country (public, private, 2-year, and 4-year).

What I Found

In short: it varies whether institutions have the infrastructure to continue operations in a campus closure. On the whole, the situation is concerning, but with concerted long-term action, it’s fixable.

Nearly all institutions equip those in leadership positions to function away from campus. Likely, because those roles already involve after-hours work from home, they regularly access essential files and resources remotely.

Student-facing offices and business services offices have a significant gap. Non-supervisory positions in those departments are largely nonexempt and typically can’t work after regular hours.

Some institutions, both large and small, have robust continuity plans and have implemented those plans to ensure successful operation in a closure. For example, these institutions have:

  • Switched to laptops/docking stations for all office employees
  • Ensured employees have operational VPN to access databases and files securely
  • Transitioned all online systems to allow for remote access
  • Modernized their telecommuting policies
  • Encouraged office employees to occasionally work remotely, in part to test if folks could function away from campus
  • Ensured that all professors actively use learning management systems (LMSs) and have practiced teaching online occasionally

Unfortunately, other institutions have taken a different approach:

  • Purchasing laptops only for professors and administrators, not for operational staff. Or worse, avoiding purchasing laptops for any positions
  • Allowing employees to work remotely only in rare cases, with no systemic approach to ensuring all office staff can function away from campus
  • Developing complicated telecommuting policies that actively discourage working remotely
  • Not working with unions or faculty leaders to anticipate how institutions can operate in a campus closure

Most institutions I included in my sample are unprepared to keep operations going when folks can’t work on campus.

What Institutions Need to Do to Prepare

Although nearly all institutions have business continuity plans that include some reference to campus closures, many haven’t fully implemented the items on the list below:

#1: Move Toward Buying Laptops/Docking Stations for All Office Employees

If employees use a laptop with a docking station as their regular computer, the learning curve is reduced or eliminated for working from home. For example, employees would not need to adjust to a new computer or install new software.

All office employees must know how to use the VPN and access shared files remotely. IT should ensure all systems operate off-campus, rather than relying on legacy systems only accessible from computers located on campus.

#2: Develop Progressive Telecommuting Policies

Progressive institutions see telecommuting as a tool for cost savings, employee retention, and a practice that helps ensure continuity of operations in a crisis. Unfortunately, many universities’ telecommuting policies seem designed to make it more difficult to work remotely. Multiple institutions reported onerous approval processes for an employee to work remotely occasionally. Current approaches treat telecommuting as a special favor to employees rather than an essential part of modern workforce policy.

#3: Encourage All Employees to Work From Home Occasionally

If employees become comfortable with working from home, they can function more effectively when an inevitable campus closure happens. To provide as much continuity as possible in an emergency or catastrophe, institutions can normalize remote work to make it easier to adjust in a closure situation. This normalization reduces the inevitable strain on IT support during such an event.

#4: Work with Faculty Leadership to Develop Proactive Continuity Plans

Professors can function remotely better than some other groups, especially in departments with heavy use of learning management systems. Faculty regularly work from home and usually have access to their files regardless of location. Vendors designed systems for faculty with the assumption that faculty would access them from many places. For the past 20 years, platforms like LMSs and student grade entry platforms have functioned remotely.

Faculty in lab-oriented disciplines or units with little online teaching and learning have a much steeper learning curve. Institutions must work with faculty leadership to develop practices that encourage faculty to occasionally teach a portion of face-to-face courses online or make heavy use of an LMS. Such a practice would decrease the adjustment needed with a long-term campus closure.

If institutions don’t already have it, they need to build robust instructional support for online teaching. Centers for teaching and learning typically house such services and can provide support for faculty even if an institution has no plans to offer many regular online courses.

#5: Work with Unions to Update Policies and Contracts

Policies have created barriers to remote work in campus emergencies. For example, concerns exist over what to do when some types of employees have a paid day off due to a closure (e.g., custodial, food service). In contrast, other types of employees work remotely (e.g., student services, business services). Multiple institutions identified this concern as a reason they opt for not allowing telecommuting during a campus closure. Institutions need to revisit or renegotiate these policies and practices long before an emergency, given the new reality of extreme events.

#6: Consider How Staff and Students Can Gain Remote Access

Not all employees or students have remote access available from their homes. One institution provides check-out hotspots for staff who don’t have high-speed internet at home. In community colleges and universities serving large numbers of low-income students, some don’t have laptops or connections to use during a shutdown. Since public libraries often provide such access, institutions may need to develop creative alternatives for internet access.

Creating Modern, Flexible Work Environments Provides Other Benefits

Many industries outside of higher education have embraced telecommuting and flexible work locations for years. These practices make sense from an employee morale perspective, for reducing carbon emissions, and for scaling down future campus footprints. One institution, in a state with an emission-reduction program, uses its flexible work policy for carbon emission reductions in conjunction with the continuity plan for campus closures.

Long-term, these practices can reduce the need for additional buildings, building maintenance, and campus parking. Those benefits affect both the environment and finances.

Institutions should get serious now about encouraging large-scale changes to campus cultures and policies to encourage telecommuting. These changes can not only help ensure the continuity of essential functions but can also provide other institutional benefits.


Photo by Craig Whitehead on Unsplash

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Giving Up Control to Build a Learning Culture in a Healthcare System

photo of a woman releasing a heat balloon in the nightA case of strategy development through participation in a large, complex organization. 

Few other industries have the potential to impact life and death as much as the healthcare sector.  Healthcare organizations that don’t provide sufficient attention to learning, improvement, and growth put their patients’ safety and well-being at risk.

A team I led facilitated an 18-month process to enhance learning within a 40-location healthcare system with over 12,000 employees that faced unprecedented changes due to internal and external pressures.  The CEO wanted to make learning “everyone’s business,” as opposed to trainer-centric.  The goal was to have “perfect alignment” between overall systemwide strategy and the learning occurring in the system.  To help achieve this goal, the Chief Learning Officer (CLO), who reported directly to the CEO, hired us to facilitate engagement across their system.  He tasked us with helping build a results-oriented mechanism to achieve alignment between strategy and learning.

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Dreaming of the Perfect Marriage: Learning and Organizational Strategy

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Data suggest that leverage points exist to change employee perceptions.

Few chief learning officers (CLOs) disagree they have a mandate to ensure that learning initiatives align with organizational strategy.  A great deal of research exists about how to align the two.  However, what does it look like for employees to connect their learning and development with an actual organization’s strategy?

The term “line of sight” refers to how well an employee can see and understand the connection between their work and organizational strategy.  If employees can see a connection between their daily work and strategy, they can better make decisions about the direction of their individual work and learning.  In particular, it helps employees know where to put their energy when competing priorities exist.  Frankly, strategy doesn’t matter if it doesn’t filter down to employees to affect their daily work.

What We Attempted to Find

We led a process of facilitating a system-wide vision and direction for organizational learning within a 40-location healthcare system with over 12,000 employees.  As one part of a larger 18-month engagement, our client wanted to understand employee needs for their learning, as well as the climate for learning within the organization. In other words, we wanted to find out how employees viewed the alignment between learning initiatives and the organization’s overall strategic goals.

The executive team had an aspiration of attaining “perfect alignment” between learning/organization development and systemwide strategy.  We measured that alignment with a survey instrument called the Strategic Human Resource Development Alignment Index (SHRD-AI). 

What We Found

We surveyed 2062 employees at all sites, both through email and deploying a team with tablets to capture folks in high-traffic areas who don’t sit at a desk all day.  Over half of the employees responding were in clinical roles (e.g., doctor, nurse), which we considered an accomplishment given the fast-paced nature of those jobs. 

In addition to providing really helpful information for use within the organization, we analyzed the data to see what insights other organizations could use from this new instrument we created. Here is what we found:

  • Awareness is Key.  Simply knowing what learning opportunities are available strongly related to employees’ perceptions of (1) having a positive organizational learning culture, (2) alignment of learning initiatives and organizational strategy, and (3) organizational investment in employees.  This finding suggests that both formal internal marketing of learning and strong word-of-mouth awareness can have a positive effect.
  • Employees Need to Perceive their Employer Invests in Them. Employees who perceived the organization invests in their development reported that (1) their managers supported their learning, (2) a more positive organizational learning culture existed, and (3) a more positive performance climate existed (i.e., they perceive their work to be meaningful, allowing for positive self-expression and contribution).  This finding suggests that CLOs need to ensure employees have an awareness of the value of the organization’s investment in employees.
  • Manager Support is a Key Leverage Point.  Employees who reported higher levels of managerial support for their learning also reported (1) higher levels of alignment between their learning and organizational strategy, (2) positive organizational learning culture, and a (3) positive performance climate where their work is personally meaningful.  Managers serve an essential role in connecting employees with the overall direction of learning and strategy.

What’s It Mean for CLOs?

CLOs need employees to understand the connection between learning/change initiatives and the strategic direction of organizations.  Our results suggest CLOs need to ensure continual communication on how the organization is investing in employee development and how that development connects with a culture of planned, strategic learning.  The need for repeated communication can’t be emphasized too much. 

Based on our findings, managers need to work individually with employees to support their learning goals and articulate how their learning and growth aligns with the organization’s strategy.  These conversations should occur regularly and should be part of a larger, recurring theme of emphasizing the connection between everyday work and strategy.  CLOs have a key role in educating other executives and mid-level managers on the importance of this recurring communication.

CLOs should advocate for including measures of organizational alignment in annual engagement surveys, to track success in linking learning and strategy, from the employee perspective.

CLOs who connect learning to strategy have the opportunity to ensure talent development remains a key priority. The good news is that CLOs have key leverage points to increase the “line of sight” connection between employees’ daily work, learning, and organizational strategy.  It requires focused, consistent messaging from CLOs to senior and mid-level leadership.  Internal marketing and word-of-mouth campaigns for learning initiatives provide a direct link for increasing employee awareness.  

This persistent attention provides the best opportunity for increasing on-the-ground employees’ connection of learning to overall organizational strategy.

Rod Githens, Ph.D. and Ann Herd, Ph.D.

Photo by Christina Branco on Unsplash

How to Respond to Employee Activism

girl on someone's shoulders at a rally with a sign that says "protect kids not guns"Many employees want to do meaningful work and they want their employer to either support or align with their values and identities.  When that doesn’t happen, employees generally have three choices: leave the organization, try to bring change within the organization, or just shut up and deal with it.  The last option is probably the worst  for the employer because it leads to lowered employee engagement.

I recommend providing a relief valve that allows for employees to express themselves when they rise up against a decision or organize themselves to advocate for change within the organization.  In this article, I outline two models employers can use to address employee activism.

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Picking the Perfect Location for an Off-site Retreat or Meeting

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Leaders oftentimes delegate the role of handling logistics for an off-site meeting.  However, selecting the right location and ambiance can directly impact the success of the event.  Those in charge of logistics can select an optimal space and room setup to increase the likelihood of the event’s success.

I recently co-facilitated a strategic planning session at a beautiful location in the Sonoma Region of California.  When I arrived, the venue appeared to be perfect: serene grounds and attractive well-maintained facilities.  However, the venue had never been used for a business retreat or meeting.  It normally serves as a wedding venue.  When I walked into the large room for the meeting, I thought “this is perfect.”  The room had expansive windows with lots of natural light, high vaulted ceilings, and hardwood floors.  It looked like an ideal location for a retreat.

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Needs Assessment as a Learning Tool: Three Findings

Neeinnovative looking office with notes pasted on windowds assessment can be used to determine what factors are causing a problem. Can it also be used to improve organizational learning?

With my colleague, Dr. Denise Cumberland, I was involved in a project that sought to understand if needs assessment could be used as an organizational learning tool, in addition to identifying causes of a problem.  We worked with a Fortune 200 quick service restaurant chain and their “broken” new product development process.  Data were gathered from multiple stakeholder groups using interviews and a survey questionnaire.

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Organizational Change in Franchises through Advisory Boards

large board tableHow do franchise organizations build momentum around change and an atmosphere of trust? Franchising brings a unique set of challenges in achieving organizational change.  The main challenge is that franchise organizations actually consist of various firms (called franchisors and franchisees).  One solution is fostering a healthy relationship with franchisees through franchise advisory boards.  At their best, franchise associations and advisory boards help ensure that franchisee voices are heard and that collaborative relationships exist between the franchisor and franchisees.

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Online Learning & Centralization of Commuity College Systems

Workforce development training is an important part of the mission of community colleges.  Increasingly, students need and expect online courses to be an option for some or all of their programs.  I conducted a study looking at why some community and technical colleges offer more online programs than others.  Read More

Professors’ Impact on the Real World

For many professors in leadership and organization studies-related fields,  a big part of our job is thinking seriously about how organizational leaders can address the world’s problems and opportunities. However, it’s fair to say that the for a good number of professors, the extent of their real world impact doesn’t go beyond an indirect impact through their teaching. Read More

Expanding Apprenticeships in the U.S.

Although common in other countries, apprenticeships are not widely known in the U.S.  Despite their lack of widespread use, they provide a cost effective training model that leads to middle-class jobs.  Apprenticeships provide cost advantages to employers utilizing these programs as a source for developing skilled talent.  Many other methods of attaining or developing a skilled workforce are more expensive or less effective. Read More